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Glossary

 Source: Canadian Forest Service

Words and expression in [ ] are French terninologi.

A

Adaptive Management Area (AMA): Stands or forest types that require similar management practices and are grouped as one unit for the purposes of silviculture management. [Aire de gestion adaptée]

Afforestation: The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always or very long been absent. Where such establishment fails and is repeated, the latter may properly be termed "reafforestation." See also Reforestation. [Reboisement]

Agroforestry: A collective name for land-use systems and practices in which trees and shrubs are deliberately integrated with non-woody crops and/or animals on the same land area for ecological and economic purposes. [Agroforesterie]

Annual allowable cut (AAC): The amount of timber that is permitted to be cut annually from a particular area. AAC is used as the basis for regulating harvest levels to ensure a sustainable supply of timber. [Possibilité annuelle de coupe (PAC)]

Anthropogenic emission: Emission caused by human activities (e.g., burning fossil fuels or setting fires to clear forest land for agricultural purposes). [Émission anthropique]

Anthropogenic removal: Removal resulting from human activities (e.g., planting trees). [Réduction anthropique]

Arboreal: Relating to the cultivation of trees. [Arboricole]

Arboretum: A botanical tree garden where trees are maintained for display purposes. [Arboretum]

Area regenerating: Includes areas that have been harvested recently (less than 10 years ago), and areas depleted by such natural disturbances as fire, insects and disease. [Superficie en régénération]

 

B

Bacillus thuringiensis var. kustaki: A biological insecticide developed in Canada. This natural bacterium, which occurs in soils, is sprayed on forests to combat damaging insects. [Bacillus thuringiensis]

Biodiversity (biological diversity): Refers to the variety of life on 3 different levels: the variety of ecosystems (ecosystem diversity), the variety of species (species diversity) and the variety within species (genetic diversity). Biodiversité (diversité biologique)

Biomass: The dry weight of all organic material, living or dead, above or below the soil surface. [Biomasse]

Boreal forest: One of 3 main forest zones in the world; it is located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of conifers. [Forêt boréale]

Buffer: A strip of land where disturbances are not allowed, or are closely monitored, to preserve aesthetic and other qualities adjacent to roads, trails, waterways, and recreation sites. [Zone tampon]

 

C

Canopy: The more or less continuous cover of branches and foliage formed collectively by the crowns of adjacent trees. [Couvert forestier]

Chain of custody: The process of monitoring the production and distribution of goods from the forest to the end-product, i.e., tracing the origin of the product. [Continuité de possession]

Clearcutting: A forest management method that involves the complete felling and removal of a stand of trees. Clearcutting may be done in blocks, strips, or patches. [Coupe à blanc]

Commercial forest: Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame. [Forêt d'intérêt commercial]

Coniferous: Refers to a forest stand or category of trees or bush that is popularly called 'evergreen.' The wood of conifers is commercially known as 'softwood.' [Conifère]

Convention: A legally binding agreement, often among many parties. [Convention]

Crown land: Public land that is managed by the national or provincial/territorial government. Terre de la Couronne

 

D

Deforestation: Clearing an area of forest for another long-term use. [Déboisement]

Desertification: The transformation of once-productive arid and semi-arid areas into deserts through prolonged drought or continued mismanagement of land and water resources. [Désertification]

 

E

Ecodistrict: A part of an ecoregion characterized by distinctive geologic, soil, water, fauna and land use. [Écodistrict]

Ecological land classification: A process of delineating and classifying ecologically distinctive areas based on geologic, landform, soil, vegetative, climatic, wildlife, water and human factors. This holistic approach to land classification can be applied incrementally, from site-specific ecosystems to very broad ecosystems. This system provides for seven levels of generalization; ecozones, ecoprovinces, ecoregions, ecodistricts, ecosections, ecosites and ecoelements. [Classification écologique des terres]

Ecoregion: A part of a province characterized by distinctive regional ecological factors, including climate, physical geography, vegetation, soil, water, fauna and land use. [Écorégion]

Ecosystem: A dynamic system of plants, animals, and other organisms, together with the non-living components of the environment, functioning as an interdependent unit. [Écosystème]

Ecosystem integrity: The quality of a natural unmanaged or managed ecosystem in which the natural ecological processes sustain the function, composition and structure of the system. [Intégrité de l'écosystème]

Ecozone: An area of the Earth's surface that is representative of a broad-scale ecological unit characterized by particular abiotic (non-living) and biotic (living) factors. [Écozone]

Edge habitat: A loosely defined type of habitat that occurs at the boundary between two different habitat types. Typically, edge habitats share characteristics with both adjacent habitat types and have particular transitional characteristics that are important to wildlife. [Habitat de lisière]

Endangered species: Species that are threatened with imminent extinction; includes species whose numbers or habitats have been reduced to critical levels. [Espèce en danger de disparition]

Environmental assessment: A process designed to contribute pertinent environmental information to the decision-making process of forest management and other resource projects and programs. [Évaluation environnementale]

Extirpated species/extirpation: Refers to the local extinction of a species that is no longer found in a locality or country, but exists elsewhere in the world. Espèce extirpée/extirpation; [Espèce disparue/disparition]

 

F

Falldown: A situation in which second-growth forests provide less timber than the original forests. [Exploitation Secondaire]

Fauna: A general term for all forms of animal life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. [Faune]

Featured-species management: A type of wildlife management that does not attempt to manage for all species, but selects a few species of particular concern or interest (e.g., big game species or endangered species) and aims management programs at them. With respect to habitat, it is generally assumed that providing habitat for these species provides habitat for other species as well. [Gestion axée sur les espèces]

Feller-Buncher: A self-propelled machine used to fell trees by shearing them off near the ground using a hydraulic apparatus. Some models also strip limbs and bunch the logs for later pickup. [Abatteuse-groupeuse]

Flora: A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. [Flore]

Forest regions classification: A process of delineating large geographic areas according to landform and climate, associated with broad variations in overall forest composition. [Classification des régions forestières]

Forest type: A group of forest areas or stands whose similar composition (species, age, height, and density) differentiates it from other such groups. [Type forestier]

 

G

Global warming: The rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect (the retention of the sun's energy by the atmosphere due to the build-up of CO2 and other gases that are the bi-product of industrial activities). [Réchauffement planétaire]

Group-selection method: A method of regenerating uneven-aged stands in which trees are removed in small groups. [Jardinage par groupes]

Guild management: A method of management by which species are assembled into groups based on similarities in their habitat requirements. One species is selected to indicate the group; conserving the habitat of that particular species ensures the conservation of other members of the guild. [Gestion par association]

 

H

Habitat: The environment in which a population or individual lives; includes not only the place where a species is found, but also the particular characteristics of the place (e.g., climate or the availability of suitable food and shelter) that make it especially well suited to meet the life cycle needs of that species. [Habitat]

Hardwood(s): Trees that lose their leaves in autumn; also refers to the wood produced by these trees. Hardwoods belong to the botanical division Angiospermae (now Magnoliophyta) and are the dominant type of tree in the deciduous forest. [Feuillus]

Heritage forests: Proposed name for the highly protected sites within Canada's forest land. These sites, designated by federal and provincial agencies, are classified according to the World Conservation Union categories and are protected by legislation from commercial harvesting. [Forêts patrimoniales]

Home-range size: An individual species' requirement for space. Both the size of an organism and its lifestyle determine its space requirements. [Domaine vital]

 

I

Integrated resource management: A holistic approach to resource management that entails the management of 2 or more resources (e.g., water, soil, timber, pasture, wildlife, and recreation) and that integrates the values of the community into the design of policies or projects to use and sustain these resources in perpetuity. [Gestion intégrée des ressources]

Inventory (forest): A survey of a forest area to determine such data as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting. [Inventaire (forestier)]

 

J - K

 

L

Landscape: Areas of land that are distinguished by differences in landforms, vegetation, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. [Paysage]

Lichen: An algae and a fungus growing in symbiotic association on solid surfaces such as rocks or tree bark. [Lichen]

Light framing lumber: Lumber that is 5 to 10 cm thick and 5 to 10 cm wide. It is used in a large variety of general construction applications. [Bois à charpente légère]

 

M

Management plan: A detailed long-term plan for a forested area. It contains inventory and other resource data. [Plan d'aménagement]

Microorganisms: Microscopic one- or multi-celled organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, yeasts, algae, fungi and protozoans. [Microorganismes]

Mixedwoods: Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae that are substantially intermingled in stands. [Peuplement mixte]

Model forest: A forest or designated area including forests and woodland for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis. [Forêt modèle]

Multiple forest use: A system of resource use where the forest resources in a given land unit serve more than one user. [Utilisation intégrée de la forêt]

 

N

Niche environment: The unique environment used to sustain the existence of an organism or species. [Niche (écologique)]

Non-commercial tree species: A tree species for which there is currently no market. [Espèce d'arbre non commerciale]

 

O

Old-growth forest: A stand dominated by mature or overmature trees that has not been significantly influenced by human activity. The stand can contain various ages and species of vegetation. [Vieille forêt (ou de première venue)]

Open forests: Proposed name for the natural forests commonly found in northern Canada. These forests are a mixture of wetlands and small trees, occasionally interspersed with highly productive forests. [Forêts claires]

Oriented strand board (OSB): Panels made from narrow strands of fibre oriented lengthwise and crosswise in layers, with a resin binder. Depending on the resin used, OSB can be suitable for interior or exterior applications. [Panneau de particules orientées]

Overmature: Tree or stand that has passed the age of maturity where the rate of growth has diminished and the trees are weakened. [Suranné]

Overstorey: The upper canopy of a forest, typically formed by the branches and leaves of trees. [Étage dominant]

Ozone layer: A form of oxygen (O3) formed naturally in the upper atmosphere by a photochemical reaction with solar ultraviolet radiation and a major agent in the formation of smog. [Couche d'ozone]

 

P

Patch cutting: The removal of all of the trees in a stand. The same as clearcutting, except that the area involved is smaller. [Exploitation par blocs]

Pathogen: A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. Pathogéne

Pest: An organism capable of causing material damage. Forest pests include insects, tree diseases, and noxious fungi. [Ravageur]

Photosynthesis: Formation of carbohydrates in the chlorophyll-containing tissues of plants exposed to light. [Photosynthèse]

Plantation: A stand of trees that has been grown through direct seeding or by planting seedlings. [Plantation]

Population: A group of organisms of the same species inhabiting a particular geographical area at a particular time. [Population]

Protected area: An area protected by legislation, regulation, or land-use policy to control the level of human occupancy or activities. Categories of protected areas include protected landscapes, national parks, multiple-use management areas, and nature (wildlife) reserves. [Aire protégée]

Protection forests: Proposed name for forests protected from harvesting by policy. These forests usually protect sensitive sites, such as watersheds and steep slopes. [Forêts de protection]

Protocol: A legally binding sub-agreement of a framework convention or treaty. [Protocole]

Provenance: The geographical area or place of origin of a collection of genetic material (generally in the form of seed, pollen or cuttings) for which the process of natural selection has resulted in some common or shared population characteristics. [Provenance]

Pulp: Wood chips that have been ground mechanically into fibers and are used for the production of inexpensive paper, such as newsprint, or that have been chemically treated to remove the lignin and are used to manufacture higher quality papers. [Pâte]

 

Q

 

R

Reforestation: The reestablishment of trees on denuded forest land by natural or artificial means, such as planting and seeding. See also [Afforestation Reboisement]

Regeneration: The continuous renewal of a forest stand. Natural regeneration occurs gradually with seeds from adjacent stands or with seeds brought in by wind, birds, or animals. Artificial regeneration involves direct seeding or planting. [Régénération]

Riparian forest: At a large scale, it is the band of forest that has a significant influence on a stream ecosystem or is significantly affected by the stream. At a smaller scale, it is the forest at the immediate water's edge, where some specialized plants and animals form a distinct community. [Forêt ripicole]

Rotation: The cycle of regeneration, growth and harvesting of a single crop. [Révolution]

Roundwood: Round sections of tree stems with or without bark, such as logs and bolts. [Bois rond]

 

S

Second growth forest: A forest that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original virgin forest. [Forêt de seconde venue]

Seed banks: Storage facilities where seedlots (or bags of seed) are stored. [Banques de semences]

Seed orchards: A plantation of trees (pre-selected on the basis of their superior genetic traits) that has been isolated from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce abundant seed crops. [Verger à graines]

Seed tree cutting: Leaving a scattered number of trees on a site to provide a portion of the seeds needed for regeneration. See also Seed-tree method [Mode de régénération par coupe rase avec semenciers]

Seed-tree method: A method of regenerating a forest stand that involves removing all of the trees from an area in a single cut, except for a small number of seed-bearing trees. The objective is to create an even-aged stand. See also Seed tree cutting. [Mode de régénération par coupe rase avec semenciers]

Seeding felling: A method of regeneration involving the removal of trees in a mature stand (to open the canopy) with the exception of a small number of see trees. The objective is to produce an even-aged stand. [Coupe d'ensemencement]

Selection cutting: Annual or periodic cutting of trees in a stand in which the trees vary markedly in age. The objective is to recover the yield and maintain an uneven-aged stand structure, while creating the conditions necessary for tree growth and seedling establishment. Differs from selective cutting, in which the most valuable trees are harvested without regard for the condition of the residual stand. [Coupe de jardinage]

Shelterwood cutting: A method of harvesting that involves 2 cuts: the first cut leaves trees at intervals to provide the canopy and species required for natural regeneration; the second cut harvests the resulting new crop of trees (which are fairly even-aged). [Coupes progressives]

Shelterwood systems: A method of harvesting that involves two cuts: the first cut leaves trees at intervals to provide the canopy and species required for natural regeneration; the second cut harvests the resulting new crop of trees (which are fairly even-aged). [Mode de régénération par coupe progressives]

Shortwood harvesting: A harvesting method by which a tree is cut down, delimbed and cut into 1.3-, 2.6-, 3.2-, or 4.8-metre lengths before being transported to a mill. [Exploitation en bois court]

Silviculture: The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands. Can include basic silviculture (e.g., planting and seeding) and intensive silviculture (e.g., site rehabilitation, spacing, and fertilization). [Sylviculture]

Single tree selection: The selection of individual trees for harvesting. [Coupe sélective par arbre]

Softwood(s): Cone-bearing trees with needles or scale-like leaves; also refers to the wood produced by these trees. Softwoods belong to the botanical division Gymnospermae (now Pinophyta) and are the predominant tree type in coniferous forests. [Résineux (conifères)]

Snag: A dead, but standing tree from which the leaves and most of the branches have fallen. [Chicot]

SPF (spruce-pine-fir): Canadian woods of similar characteristics that are grouped as one lumber type for production and marketing purposes. SPF species range in color from white to pale yellow. [EPS (épinette-pin-sapin)]

Spruce budworm: An insect that damages spruce and fir trees. Eggs of the spruce budworm are laid on branches by an adult moth. Young budworms feed primarily on the new growth of the tree branch, but also eat older needles. Defoliation results, killing the tree. [Tordeuse des bourgeons de l'épinette]

Stocked forest: Land supporting tree growth. In this context, tree growth includes seedlings and saplings.[ Forêt regénérée]

Succession: Changes in the species composition of an ecosystem over time, often in a predictable order. In forests, it refers to the sequence of one community of plants gradually replacing another. [Succession]

Sustainable (forest) development: The development of forests to meet current needs without prejudice to their future productivity, ecological diversity or capacity for regeneration. [Développement durable des forêts]

Sustained-yield forestry: The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management. [Foresterie à rendement soutenu]

 

T

Temperate forest: The woodland of rather mild climatic areas; composed mainly of deciduous trees. [Forêt tempérée]

Thinning: A partial cutting or spacing operation made in an immature forest stand to accelerate the growth of the remaining trees. [Éclaircie]

Threatened species: A species that is likely to become endangered if certain pressures are not reversed. [Espèce menacée]

Treaty: A legally binding agreement, often between two parties. [Traité]

Tropical forest: A tropical woodland with an annual rainfall of a least 250 cm; marked by broadleaved evergreen trees forming a continuous canopy. [Forêt tropicale]

 

U

Understorey: The lower level of vegetation in a forest. Usually formed by ground vegetation (mosses, herbs and lichens), herbs and shrubs, but may also include subdominant trees. [Sous-étage]

 

V

Vertical diversity: A term used to describe forest structure, proceeding vertically through a forest canopy. [Diversité verticale]

Vertical structure: The structure formed by different layers of vegetation in a forest. [Structure verticale]

Vulnerable species: A species that is considered at risk because it exists in low numbers or in restricted ranges, due to loss of habitat or other factors. [Espèce vulnérable]

 

W

Watershed: An area of land that is drained by underground or surface streams into another stream or waterway. [Bassin versant.]

 

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